Generic/outside definitions:

Apache’s new contributor documentation and Maven’s glossary are great places to start if you are new to Apache or Maven.

Almost the same meaning as sub-project on Maven.

test-patch specific

A chunk of shell code that tells test-patch this particular project’s needs and special requirements

Shell code snippets that define new, not built-in test types.

An automated process that verifies a patch is good prior to a committer looking at it.